Teaching Scheme


Examination Scheme

Lectures : 3 hrs/week


Mid-Sem – 30, Assignments, Quiz -20



End-Sem Exam- 50.


Unit 1             



Definition: Transducer, Sensor, Calibration, Range and Span. Classification: Active, passive, primary, secondary, mechanical, electronic, analog and digital transducers. Selection criteria, sources of errors and their analysis. Characteristics: Static and Dynamic characteristics.

(Working principles, types, measuring circuits and applications).Displacement Measurement:

Resistive: Potentiometers, strain gauges. Inductive: LVDT and Eddy current type Transducers. Magnetic pickups.

Capacitive: Capacitance pickups, Differential capacitive cells.

Piezoelectric, Ultrasonic transducers and Hall effect transducers

Optical transducers, Encoders, Photoelectric pickups, stroboscopes.


Unit 2             



Vibration and acceleration measurement:

Eddy current type, piezoelectric type, Seismic type.

Jerk meter.

Force, torque, shaft power measurement and weight measurement:

Force and weight:  Basic methods of force measurement, elastic force traducers, strain gauge, load cells, shear web, piezoelectric force transducers, vibrating wire force transducers,

Torque: Strain gages, feedback torque sensors, torsion bar dynamometer, etc.

Shaft power: Dynamometer (servo control and absorption) instantaneous power measurement and alternator power measurement



Unit 3




Temperature Measurement:

Temperature scales, Classification of temperature  sensors.

Thermometers: Bimetallic strip, metal expansion type, mercury in glass, liquid thermometer, vapor pressure. Thermostat.

RTD: Types- PT100, CU60, 2 wire, 3wire and 4 wire. Bare and Industrial RTD. Lead wire compensation. Self heating effect. 

Thermistors: Types: NTC, PTC 

Thermocouples: Terminology, types (J, K, E, R, S, T) and characteristics, law of thermoelectricity, thermocouple tables, cold junction compensation methods, change of table reference construction and protection, thermowell, thermopile.

Semiconductor temperature sensors: Diode and IC temp sensors. Ultrasonic temp detector, quartz crystal temp. detector.

Radiation: Pyrometers (Total and Radiation), Infrared sensors. Fiber optic thermometer

Unit 4 




Flow Measurement

Positive displacement flow meters. Bernoulli's theorem, Reynolds Number. Differential pressure type flow sensors: Orifice and their types, Venturi and Nozzle. Pressure taps Pitot tube, annubar.  Variable area meter (Rotameter).

Turbine type flow meter, Electromagnetic flow type, ultrasonic flow meter,

Vortex shedding type, mass flow meters, anemometers, flow totalizers and solid flow measurement.


Unit 5 




Pressure measurement

Pressure scale and standards

Manometers: U-tube, well type, inclined tube, ring balance and digital manometer.

Elastic pressure sensors: Bellows, bourdon tubes, diaphragm, (types, materials, range, sensitivity, construction, resonant frequency, advantages and limitations).

Secondary pressure sensors,Differential pressure measurements: Force balance type, motion balance type, capacitive (delta cell), ring balance, vibrating cylinder type.

High-pressure sensors: Dead weight tester, Bulk modulus cell, Bridge man type (Pressure sensitive wires).Vacuum sensors:  McLeod gauge, thermal conductivity (Pirani, Thermocouple gage) ionization types, molecular momentum gage, penning gage.


Unit 6             




Level measurement:

Float, displacers, bubbler, and DP- cell

Ultrasonic, capacitive, microwave, radar, radioactive type, laser type transducers, level gages, resistance, thermal,

TDR/ PDS type, solid level detectors, fiber optic level detectors.

Miscellaneous sensors:

Physical sensors, chemical sensors, biosensors, leak detector, flame detector, smoke detector, noise sensors. Sound measurement techniques.


Text Books

·         Instrumentation Measurements and Analysis – B.C.Nakra and K.K.Choudhari

·         Electronic Instruments & Measurement  - A. K. Sawhney


Reference books

·         Measurement Systems - E.O. Doebelin (4th Edition).

·         Principle of industrial Instrumentation – Patranabis.

·         Process Control Instrumentation Technology - C.D. Johnson (5th Edition).

·         Process Measurement & analysis - B.G. Liptak (Vol-I)

·         Instrumentation and Measurement Principles – D.V.S. Murthi